Security

Configuring DC/OS service accounts for Spark

This topic describes how to configure secure DC/OS service accounts for Spark.

When running in DC/OS strict security mode, both the dispatcher and jobs must authenticate to Mesos using a DC/OS service account.

Provisioning a service account

This section describes how to configure DC/OS access for Apache Spark. Depending on your security mode, Apache Spark may require service authentication for access to DC/OS.

Security mode Service Account
Disabled Not available
Permissive Optional
Strict Required

If you install a service in permissive mode and do not specify a service account, Metronome and Marathon will act as if requests made by this service are made by an account with the superuser permission.

Prerequisites:

Create a Key Pair

In this step, a 2048-bit RSA public-private key pair is created using the Enterprise DC/OS CLI.

Create a public-private key pair and save each value into a separate file within the current directory.

dcos security org service-accounts keypair <private-key>.pem <public-key>.pem

NOTE: You can use the DC/OS Secret Store to secure the key pair.

Create a Service Account

From a terminal prompt, create a new service account (for example, spark) containing the public key (<your-public-key>.pem).

dcos security org service-accounts create -p <your-public-key>.pem -d <description> spark

You can verify your new service account using the following command.

dcos security org service-accounts show spark

Create a Secret

Create a secret (spark/<secret-name>) with your service account and private key specified (<private-key>.pem).

NOTE: If you store your secret in a path that matches the service name, for example, service name and secret path are both spark, then only the service named spark can access it.

Permissive

dcos security secrets create-sa-secret <private-key>.pem <service-account-id> spark/<secret-name>

Strict

dcos security secrets create-sa-secret --strict <private-key>.pem <service-account-id> spark/<secret-name>

You can list the secrets with this command:

dcos security secrets list /

Create and assign permissions

Use the following curl commands to rapidly provision the Spark service account with the required permissions. You can also provision the service account through the UI.

When running in DC/OS strict security mode, both the dispatcher and jobs must authenticate to Mesos using a DC/OS service account.

Follow these instructions to authenticate in strict mode.

Using the secret store

DC/OS Enterprise allows users to add privileged information in the form of a file to the DC/OS secret store. These files can be referenced in Spark jobs and used for authentication and authorization with various external services (for example, HDFS). For example, you can use this functionality to pass Kerberos keytab files. For details about how to use secrets, see understanding secrets.

Where to place secrets

For a secret to be available to Spark, it must be placed in a path that can be accessed by the Spark service. If only Spark requires access to a secret, you can store the secret in a path that matches the name of the Spark service (for example, spark/secret). See the Secrets Documentation about Spaces for details about how secret paths restrict service access to secrets.

Limitations

Anyone who has access to the Spark (Dispatcher) service instance has access to all secrets available to it. Do not grant users access to the Spark Dispatchers instance unless they are also permitted to access all secrets available to the Spark Dispatcher instance.

Binary secrets

You can store binary files, like a Kerberos keytab, in the DC/OS secrets store. In DC/OS 1.11 and later, you can create secrets from binary files directly. In DC/OS 1.10 or lower, files must be base64-encoded–as specified in RFC 4648–before being stored as secrets.

DC/OS 1.11 and later

To create a secret called mysecret with the binary contents of kerb5.keytab, run the following command:

dcos security secrets create --file kerb5.keytab mysecret

DC/OS 1.10 or earlier

To create a secret called mysecret with the binary contents of kerb5.keytab, first encode it using the base64 command line utility. The following example uses BSD base64 (default on macOS).

base64 -i krb5.keytab -o kerb5.keytab.base64-encoded

Alternatively, GNU base64 (the default on Linux) inserts line-feeds in the encoded data by default. Disable line-wrapping with the -w 0 argument.

base64 -w 0 -i krb5.keytab > kerb5.keytab.base64-encoded

Now that the file is encoded, it can be stored as a secret.

dcos security secrets  create -f kerb5.keytab.base64-encoded  some/path/__dcos_base64__mysecret

NOTE: The secret name must be prefixed with __dcos_base64__.

When the some/path/__dcos_base64__mysecret secret is referenced in your dcos spark run command, its base64-decoded contents are made available as a temporary file in your Spark application.

NOTE: Make sure to only refer to binary secrets as files since holding binary content in environment variables is discouraged.

Using Mesos secrets

Once a secret has been added in the secret store, you can pass it to Spark with the spark.mesos.<task-name>.secret.names and spark.mesos.<task-name>.secret.<filenames|envkeys> configuration parameters, where <task-name> is either driver or executor. Specifying filenames or envkeys identifies the secret as either a file-based secret or an environment variable. These configuration parameters take comma-separated lists that are “zipped” together to make the final secret file or environment variable. In most cases, you should use file-based secrets whenever possible because they are more secure than environment variable secrets.

NOTE: Secrets are only supported for the Mesos Universal containerizer and not for the Docker containerizer.

To use the Mesos containerizer, add this configuration:

--conf spark.mesos.containerizer=mesos

For example, to use a secret named spark/my-secret-file as a file in the driver and the executors, add these configuration parameters:

--conf spark.mesos.containerizer=mesos
--conf spark.mesos.driver.secret.names=spark/my-secret-file
--conf spark.mesos.driver.secret.filenames=target-secret-file
--conf spark.mesos.executor.secret.names=spark/my-secret-file
--conf spark.mesos.executor.secret.filenames=target-secret-file

These settings put the contents of the secret spark/my-secret-file in a secure RAM-FS mounted secret file named target-secret-file in the drivers’ and executors’ sandboxes. If you want to use a secret as an environment variable (for example, AWS credentials), you can change the configurations to be similar to the following:

--conf spark.mesos.containerizer=mesos
--conf spark.mesos.driver.secret.names=/spark/my-aws-secret,/spark/my-aws-key
--conf spark.mesos.driver.secret.envkeys=AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY,AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID

These example settings illustrate a secret access key stored in a secret named spark/my-aws-secret and a secret key ID in spark/my-aws-key.

Limitations

When using a combination of environment and file-based secrets, there must be an equal number of sinks and secret sources (files and environment variables). For example:

--conf spark.mesos.containerizer=mesos
--conf spark.mesos.driver.secret.names=/spark/my-secret-file,/spark/my-secret-envvar
--conf spark.mesos.driver.secret.filenames=target-secret-file,placeholder-file
--conf spark.mesos.driver.secret.envkeys=PLACEHOLDER,SECRET_ENVVAR

This code places the content of spark/my-secret-file into the PLACEHOLDER environment variable and the target-secret-file file as well as the content of spark/my-secret-envvar into the SECRET_ENVVAR and placeholder-file. In the case of binary secrets, the environment variable is empty because environment variables cannot be assigned binary values.

Spark SSL

SSL support in DC/OS Apache Spark encrypts the following channels:

  • From the DC/OS admin router to the dispatcher.
  • Files served from the drivers to their executors.

To enable SSL, a Java keystore (and, optionally, truststore) must be provided, along with their passwords. The first three settings below are required during job submission. If using a truststore, the last two are also required:

Variable Description
--keystore-secret-path Path to keystore in secret store
--keystore-password The password used to access the keystore
--private-key-password The password for the private key
--truststore-secret-path Path to truststore in secret store
--truststore-password The password used to access the truststore

In addition, there are a number of Spark configuration variables relevant to SSL setup. These configuration settings are optional:

Variable Description Default value
spark.ssl.enabledAlgorithms Allowed cyphers JVM defaults
spark.ssl.protocol Protocol TLS

The keystore and truststore are created using the Java keytool. The keystore must contain one private key and its signed public key. The truststore is optional and might contain a self-signed root-CA certificate that is explicitly trusted by Java.

Add the stores to your secrets in the DC/OS secret store. For example, if your keystores and truststores are server.jks and trust.jks, respectively, then use the following commands to add them to the secret store:

dcos security secrets create /spark/keystore --text-file server.jks
dcos security secrets create /spark/truststore --text-file trust.jks

You must add the following configurations to your dcos spark run command. The ones in parentheses are optional:


dcos spark run --verbose --submit-args="\
--keystore-secret-path=<path/to/keystore, e.g. spark/keystore> \
--keystore-password=<password to keystore> \
--private-key-password=<password to private key in keystore> \
(—-truststore-secret-path=<path/to/truststore, for example, spark/truststore> \)
(--truststore-password=<password to truststore> \)
(—-conf spark.ssl.enabledAlgorithms=<cipher, for example, TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256> \)
--class <Spark Main class> <Spark Application JAR> [application args]"

DC/OS 1.10 or earlier: Since both stores are binary files, they must be base64 encoded before being placed in the DC/OS secret store. Follow the instructions above on encoding binary secrets to encode the keystore and truststore.

NOTE: If you specify environment-based secrets with spark.mesos.[driver|executor].secret.envkeys, the keystore and truststore secrets will also show up as environment variable-based secrets because of how secrets are implemented. You can ignore these extra environment variables.

Spark SASL

This section discusses executor authentication and BlockTransferService encryption.

Spark uses Simple Authentication Security Layer (SASL) to authenticate executors with the driver and for encrypting messages sent between components. This functionality relies on a shared secret between all components you expect to communicate with each other. A secret can be generated with the DC/OS Spark CLI:

dcos spark secret <secret_path>

For example:

dcos spark secret /spark/sparkAuthSecret

This example generates a random secret and uploads it to the DC/OS secrets store at the designated path. To use this secret for RPC authentication, add the following configutations to your CLI command:

dcos spark run --submit-args="\
...
--executor-auth-secret=/spark/sparkAuthSecret
...
"